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Open Access


Budapest Open Access Initiative
  • This initiative, the result of a meeting held in Budapest and published in 2002, is one of the first major statements advocating open access to scholarly literature.
Bethesda Statement on Open Access
  • Summarizes a meeting on open access held in Chevy Chase, Maryland in 2003. The goal was to stimulate discussion within the biomedical research community regarding open access to primary scientific literature.
Berlin Declaration on Open Access to Knowledge in the Sciences and Humanities
  • This declaration is the result of a conference held in Berlin in 2003 and signed by major European research institutions.
Washington DC Principles for Free Access to Science
  • A statement from scholarly, not-for-profit publishers regarding open access to scholarly literature.
Salvador Declaration on Open Access: The Developing World Perspective
  • An international seminar on open access for developing countries, held in Brazil in 2005, issued this declaration.

Durham Statement on Open Access to Legal Scholarship

  • The Durham Statement on Open Access to Legal Scholarship calls for all law schools to stop publishing their journals in print format and to rely instead on electronic publication coupled with a commitment to keep the electronic versions available in stable, open, digital formats.

Plan S & Coalition S

  • Plan S is an initiative for open access publishing that was launched in September 2018. The plan is supported by Coalition S, an international consortium of research funders. Plan S requires that in 2021 scientific publications that result from research funded by public grants must be published in compliant open access journals or platforms.


OPEN Government Data Act

  • The Open, Public, Electronic, and Necessary (OPEN) Government Data Act provides a sweeping, government-wide mandate for federal agencies to publish all their information as open data – using standardized, non-proprietary formats