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Technology & Innovation

Citing Your Sources

Proper citation is an essential aspect of scholarship. Citing properly allows your reader or audience to locate the materials you have used. Most importantly, citations give credit to the authors of quoted or consulted information. Failure to acknowledge sources of information properly may constitute plagiarism.  For an explicit definition of plagiarism, see the Boston University Academic Conduct Code.

For detailed instructions on how to cite within the text of your paper, please consult a style manual listed below. Please also note: some of the resources below do not cover every possibility you might encounter when trying to cite your sources. For this reason, it is suggested that you consult a style manual to create your bibliography.

BU Librarians often recommend refworks RefWorks as the best tool to manage citations and most importantly RefWorks can automatically create a bibliography in hundreds of styles. Accounts are free for the BU community so only use your bu.edu email address when creating an account. There are other such tools.

Chicago Style

Print Book

Note:

1. Lynda Gratton, The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems (New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014),  67-71.

 

Shortened note:

10. Gratton, The Key, 67-71.

 

Bibliography entry:

Gratton, Lynda. The Key: How How Corporations Succeed by Solving the Toughest Problems. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014.

 

 

 

E-Book

 

Note:

     13. Peter Weill and Stephanie L. Woerner, What's Your Digital Business Model?: Six Questions to Help You Build the Next-Generation Enterprise (Harvard Business Review Press, 2018), 21-23.

 

Shortened note:

15. Weill and Woerner, What's Your Digital Business?, 21-23.

 

Bibliography entry:

Weill, Peter and Stephanie L. Woerrner. What's Your Digital Business?: Six Questions to Help You Build the Next-Generation

       Enterprise. Harvard Business Review Press 2018. ProQuest Ebook Central,

       https://ebookcentral.proquest.com/lib/bu /detail.action?docID=5180058.

   

   

 

Journal Article from a database

 

Note:

     19. Samson Nambei Asoba and Nteboheng Patricia Mefi , "Functional Strategies for Small Businesses During Crisis Situations," Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 27, no. 3 (2021): 2-3. https://ezproxy.bu.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Ffunctional-strategies-small-businesses-during%2Fdocview%2F2565213471%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D9676.

 

Shortened note:

      27. Asoba and Mefi, "Functional Stategies," Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 27, 2-3. https://ezproxy.bu.edu/login?qurl=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.proquest.com%2Fscholarly-journals%2Ffunctional-strategies-small-businesses-during%2Fdocview%2F2565213471%2Fse-2%3Faccountid%3D9676

 

Bibliography entry:

Asoba, Samson Nambei and Nteboheng Patricia Mefi. "Functional Strategies for Small Businesses During Crisis Situations."

       Academy of Entrepreneurship Journal 27, no. 3 (2021): 1-7. [url].

 

 

Electronic Databases (BU Databases)

 

Mergent Online (Electronic Database)

 

Note:

      25. Thomas Key, "Comprehensive Technical and Fundamental Analysis for AAPL," Mergent Online, Stock Trader's Daily (via Investext), Sept. 15, 2021, accessed 9-17-21, [url].

 

Bibliography entry:

Key, Thomas. "Comprehensive Technical and Fundamental Analysis for AAPL." Mergent Online.

      Stock Trader's Daily (via Investext). Sept. 15, 2021. Accessed 9-17-21. [url].

 

American Psychological Association (APA) Style Manuals

APA Sample Citations: Note- initially no indent and then following lines indented.

Print Source:

Book (Print):

Gratton, L. (2014). The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems. New York: McGraw-Hill Education.

Electronic Databases (BU Databases)

Bloomberg (Electronic Database):

Bloomberg L.P. (2014). Historical Price Line Chart for Apple, Inc. 11/1/03 to 11/1/04. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Bloomberg L.P.

MarketLine Company Profile via Business Source Complete:

MarketLine Report. (2014, September 19). Company Profile: Apple Inc. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Business Source Complete database.

Mergent Online (SEC/EDGAR filing in BU database):

Apple, Inc. (2013, September 28). Form 10-K. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Mergent Online database.

Mintel Reports (Electronic Database):

Mintel. (2014, October). Mobile Apps – US – October 2014. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from Mintel Reports database.

SRDS online (Electronic Database)

SRDS Media Solutions. (n.d.). U.S. News & World Report Profile. Retrieved October 17, 2014 from SRDS Media Solutions database.

University Reporter (Electronic Database):

University Reporter. (2014, Spring). 2014 Spring Reporter Apparel/Accessories. Retrieved February 23, 2016 from University Reporter database.

Articles from a BU Database:

ABI/Inform Global

Overman, S. (2014). The Culture of Conscience. Leadership Excellence31 (10), 49-51.

Online Sources:

Annual Report Available Online:

Apple Inc.(2013).  Apple, Inc. Form 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended September 28, 2013. Retrieved from http://investor.apple.com/financials.cfm.

Modern Language Association (MLA) Style Manuals

MLA Sample Citations: Note- initially no indent and then following lines indented.

Print Source:

Book (Print):

Gratton, Lynda. The Key: How Corporations Succeed by Solving the World’s Toughest Problems. New York: McGraw-Hill Education, 2014. Print.

Electronic Databases (BU Databases):

Bloomberg (Electronic Database): Bloomberg L.P.

Bloomberg L.P. “Historical Price Line Chart for Apple, Inc. 11/1/03 to 11/1/04." Bloomberg L.P.,2014. Web. 17 October 2014.

MarketLine Company Profile via Business Source Complete:

MarketLine Report. “Company Profile: Apple Inc.” Business Source Complete database, 19 September 2014. Web. 17 October 2014.

Mergent Online (SEC/EDGAR filing in BU database):

Apple, Inc. “Form 10-K," Mergent Online database. 28 September 2013. Web.  17 October 2014.

Mintel (Electronic Database):

Mintel. “Mobile Apps – US ." Mintel database, October 2014. Web.  17 October 2014.

SRDS Online (Electronic Database):

SRDS Media Solutions. “U.S. News & World Report Profile." SRDS Media Solutions,n.d. Web. 17 October 2014.

University Reporter (Electronic Database):

University Reporter2014 Spring Reporter Apparel/Accessories. Web. February 23, 2016.

Article from a BU database

ABI/Inform Global

Overman, Steven. “The Culture of Conscience." Leadership Excellence 31.10 (2014): 49-51. ABI-Inform Complete. Web.  17 October 2014.

Online Sources

Annual Report Available Online:

Apple Inc. Apple, Inc. Form 10-K for the Fiscal Year Ended September 28, 2013. Apple Inc., 28 September 2013. Web. 17 October 2014.

Selected Web Guides

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